23rd August 2023

Here’s a selection of articles recently published in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (JAC) and JAC-Antimicrobial Resistance (JAC-AMR), as chosen by the Editors-in-Chief. In JAC, we highlight updated antifungal prophylaxis recommendations, the importance of rapid microbiological results and how to measure antibiotic usage in low-income settings. And in JAC-AMR, learn about three very different approaches to antimicrobial resistance education.

Jannik Stemler and others, Primary prophylaxis of invasive fungal diseases in patients with haematological malignancies: 2022 update of the recommendations of the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society for Haematology and Medical Oncology (DGHO), Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Volume 78, Issue 8, August 2023, Pages 1813–1826, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkad143

Invasive fungal disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with haematological malignancies. In this review, Stemler et al. provide important updates to the DGHO recommendations for antifungal prophylaxis in these patients, including greater support for some agents and the addition of recommendations for non-pharmaceutical measures. These revised recommendations can help guide clinical decision-making.

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Sofía De La Villa and others, Clinical impact of time to results from the microbiology laboratory in bloodstream infections caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (TIME-CPE STUDY), Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Volume 78, Issue 8, August 2023, Pages 1948–1954, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkad188

De La Villa et al. found that a bundle of measures performed in the microbiology laboratory led to a decrease in the time to results, which was associated with a better outcome in patients with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales bloodstream infections who received inappropriate empirical treatment and were changed to appropriate targeted treatment.

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Neesha Rockwood and others, A model for analysis of antibiotic usage in low-income settings, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Volume 78, Issue 8, August 2023, Pages 2015–2018, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkad199

Monitoring antimicrobial usage based on the WHO AWaRe categorization is an important part of antimicrobial stewardship efforts, but it can be challenging in low-income settings without electronic health records. Rockwood et al. show that the metric DDD per 100 patient-days, which allows data to be collected retrospectively, is suitable for analyses of antibiotic usage within and between institutions, particularly in low-income countries.

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Elaine Liu and others, #AMRrounds: a systematic educational approach for navigating bench to bedside antimicrobial resistance, JAC-Antimicrobial Resistance, Volume 5, Issue 4, August 2023, dlad097, https://doi.org/10.1093/jacamr/dlad097

This review by Liu et al. highlights the novel ‘AMRrounds’ educational tool first developed at Johns Hopkins Medicine and explains how to use the framework to systematically approach clinical AMR, encourage AMR-related education and optimize therapeutic decision-making in AMR-related illnesses.

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Ryan A Hamilton and others, Implementation of the national antimicrobial stewardship competencies for UK undergraduate healthcare professional education within undergraduate pharmacy programmes: a survey of UK schools of pharmacy, JAC-Antimicrobial Resistance, Volume 5, Issue 4, August 2023, dlad095, https://doi.org/10.1093/jacamr/dlad095

In a survey of higher education institutes, Hamilton et al. found variable teaching of national antimicrobial stewardship competencies for UK undergraduate pharmacy students. Schools of Pharmacy need to embed teaching in relation to taking microbiological samples, communication, OPAT and surgical prophylaxis.

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Daniel Waruingi and others, A brief review of online education resources on gamification in addressing antimicrobial resistance, JAC-Antimicrobial Resistance, Volume 5, Issue 4, August 2023, dlad094, https://doi.org/10.1093/jacamr/dlad094

In this brief educational resource review, Waruingi et al. looked at gamification as an educational tool to promote awareness and improve understanding of antimicrobial resistance. The two games reviewed are a good place to start, but there is a need for AMR educational games more applicable to low- and middle-income countries.

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